Micotoxinas y Rumiantes

Los rumiantes consumen pienso que puede que esté contaminado con micotoxinas. Las micotoxinas pueden encontrarse en todo tipo de piensos, incluyendo granos, maíz y forraje. Si incluimos derivados y metabolitos existen más de 500 micotoxinas distintas.

El hecho de que las dietas de los rumiantes estén contaminadas con distintas micotoxinas está comúnmente aceptado.

Las dietas complejas y las transiciones de los piensos que combinan forrajes, sub-productos y piensos fermentados presentan un riesgo a los rumiantes. La paja y otros materiales para las camas también pueden ser una fuente de micotoxinas

Las mayoría de los síntomas de la contaminación de micotoxinas vienen de effectos sub-agudos: baja productividad, tasa de crecimiento, conversión de pienso, volumen de leche y fertilidad o alta incidencia de enfermedades.

El ganado nunca podrá llegar a su máximo potencial si se ve afectado por micotoxinas. En el peor de los casos la leche y la carne podrían ser no aptas para el consumo humano si excedieran los niveles regulatorios permitidos en la cadena alimenticia.

Cónoce tu riesgo, toma el control

Origen de las micotoxinas

Sistemas de piensos complejos como la ración total mezclada, usada normalmente por el ganado vacuno de leche, donde se combina el forraje, granos y otros piensos procesados, presentan un riesgo significante de exposición a múltiples micotoxinas.

En estos piensos se ecn

Such feeds are commonly found containing Deoxynivalenol (DON), Zearalenone (ZON), and Fumonisins (FB1 and FB2), and can manifest as chronic health issues affecting performance and productivity.

Chopped Forage

Forage

Forages are frequently found infected with Fusarium and Aspergillus fungi.

As a high energy crop, maize is at high risk of becoming contaminated with Aflatoxin and Fumonisin mycotoxins.

Wheat Grains

Cereal Grains

Grain is often contaminated by Fusarium fungi, which favour cooler and wetter conditions.  Fusarium species are known to produce Trichothecene and Fumonisin mycotoxins.

Straw Bale

Straw

Straw, a common feed and bedding material, is frequently overlooked as a source of mycotoxins.  The fungi responsible for causing producing mycotoxins in grains can also infect the plant stems.

Results from our 2018 straw survey show that straw is frequently contaminated with multiple mycotoxins.

Effecto de las micotoxinas en rumiantes

Los síntomas más comunes de micotoxinas en rumiantes son:

Reduced milk production

Milk quality affected

Udder health issues

Impaired rumen function

Poor growth and reduced body weight

Immune suppression

Abortions and reduced fertility

Skin lesions

Liver and kidney damage

Locomotion issues

Foot health

Faecal stability

Specific symptoms associated with the main mycotoxins are provided below.

Aflatoxins are of particular concern to the dairy industry.  AFB1 a potent carcinogenic toxin, is metabolised by the liver to AFM1, which is also carcinogenic.  AFM1 can pass in to the milk and go on to cause serious human health issues.  For this reason, AFM1 levels in milk are heavily regulated around the world1.


References

1.  Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006

The ability of the rumen to detoxify Fumonisins is less than for other toxins2.

Fumonisins are known to cause damage to the liver and kidneys3.


References

2.  Fink-Gremmels, J. (2008). Mycotoxins in cattle feeds and carry-over to dairy milk: A review. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 25(2), 172–180. https://doi.org/10.1080/02652030701823142

3.  Hussein, H. (2001). Toxicity, metabolism, and impact of mycotoxins on humans and animals. Toxicology, 167(2), 101–134. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0300-483X(01)00471-1

DON is the most prevalent mycotoxin in ruminant feedstuffs.

Although ruminants are generally less susceptible to acute trichothecene toxicosis, the impact of chronic effects can be significant4.

Gastrointestinal problems, diarrhea, and poor growth rate can all occur as a result of feed refusal5.


References

4.  Morgavi, D. P., & Riley, R. T. (2007). An historical overview of field disease outbreaks known or suspected to be caused by consumption of feeds contaminated with Fusarium toxins. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 137(3–4), 201–212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2007.06.002.

5.  Fink-Gremmels, J. (2008). The role of mycotoxins in the health and performance of dairy cows. The Veterinary Journal, 176(1), 84–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.12.034

ZON mimics oestrogen, and as a result can cause reproductive issues such as poor milk yield, lower conception rates, or even abortions.

ZON is commonly found occuring together with DON in feed samples.


References

6.  Zinedine, A., Soriano, J. M., Moltó, J. C., & Mañes, J. (2007). Review on the toxicity, occurrence, metabolism, detoxification, regulations and intake of zearalenone: An oestrogenic mycotoxin. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 45(1), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2006.07.030.

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