Mycotoxins and Swine

The Threat

Swine consume feed that is likely to be contaminated with mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are extremely widespread in all feeds containing grains, maize, fruit and forage.  There are many different mycotoxin molecules; over 500, including derivatives. 

We know that feeds usually contain multiple types of mycotoxin molecules that may work together to increase detrimental effects.  A number of mycotoxins also resist the process of being broken down by the gut.

Complex diets and feed transitions that combine grain based feeds all present a root of risk to swine.  Straw bedding materials can also present mycotoxin risk to swine.

Most symptoms of mycotoxin contamination come from sub-acute effects: lower productivity, growth rates, feed conversion, fertility or higher disease incidence.

The animal can never reach its full potential when adversely affected by mycotoxins.

    At worst, meat may be unsuitable for human consumption by exceeding regulatory levels allowed into the food chain.

     

    KNOW YOUR RISK. TAKE CONTROL.

    Sources of Mycotoxin

    Complex feed systems commonly used for swine, including grain and other processed feeds are combined, present a significant risk of multiple mycotoxin risk to monogastrics.

    Such feeds can be commonly found to contain DON, ZON and FUM toxins, and can show up as chronic health issues affecting performance and overall productivity in a herd.

    pelleted feed

    Compound feeds

    The pelleting process does not remove mycotoxin risk.

    Pigs

    Bedding - Are you pigs sleeping with the enemy?

    Our tests on straw samples have shown to provide a host for fungi and their associated mycotoxins.  Find out more from our 2018 survey for mycotoxins in straw. [link]

    Effects of mycotoxins on swine

    • Poor growth rates
    • Immune suppression
    • Lower conception rates, lower litter size & stillbirths
    • Faecal stability
    • Reduced milk production & quality
    • Porcine pulmonary oedema
    • Porcine nephropathy
    • Skin lesions
    Aflatoxins
    • Aflatoxins are commonly found on Maize (Corn)
    • There are many types (B1, B2, G1, G2, M1, M2, H,D,B2a)
    • These are heavily regulated and tested for in the human food chain as they can be related to liver cancer, hepatitis B and lung cancers
    • They are more common in hot, dry countries but climate change may change this profile
    Fumonisins
    • Fumonisins generally come from Fusarium species, usually on grains (Wheat, Barley, Oats, Sorghum)
    • Their derivatives are FUM B1, B2, B3, B4, A1, A21
    • They have been related to lower body weights, liver pathology and blood and bile changes
    • Affect growth weights and productivity
    • They mimic and disrupt sphingolipid (ceramide) production
    Tricothecenes (T2/HT2)
    • From Fusarium species, so found in Grain moulds
    • Other derivatives may be diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), monoacetoxyscirpenol (MAS), neosolaniol, 8-acetoxyneosolaniol, 4-deacetylneosolaniol, nivalenol, 4-acetoxynivalenol (Fusarenone-X), DON (vomitoxin), and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol
    • They interrupt DNA/RNA synthesis and therefore protein synthesis
    • Lower growth rates and production performance
    Zearalenone (ZON/ZEA)
    • From Fusarium species, so can be found on wheat and grain moulds
    • Derivative is Zearalenol 
    • Mimic Oestrogen hormones in animals
    • Affects fertility
    Ochratoxins
    • Comes from Aspergillus and Penicilium species of moulds
    • Most common molecule is Ochratoxin A (OTA)
    • Interferes with DNA and RNA synthesis as well as renal carbohydrate metabolism
    • Can affect weakness, anaemia, renal damage, poor growth and performance
    Deoxynivalenol (DON)
    • Comes from Fusarium species of mould
    • Many derivatives
    • Found in grain varieties, especially when moisture content rises in storage
    • Has immunomodulatory effects, affects gut integrity and villus height
    • Affects feed conversion ratio, weight gains and productivity
    Ergot alkaloids
    • These come from the Claviceps moulds (purpurea, paspalli and fusiformis)
    • Found on wheat, rye and barley grains
    • Can have potent effects in poultry
    • Can reduce weight gain, fertility and in high levels, blood flow and cause secondary gangrene
    Patulin
    • Comes from the Penicillium and Aspergillus species
    • Commonly found in fruits and fruit pulps
    • Causes weight loss, neurotoxicity, intestinal changes and renal impairment
    Hidden mycotoxins
    • These are modifications of the main mycotoxin molecules that can still be toxic
    • They look like the major mycotoxin molecule but have an added or deleted chemical group (like –OH, -CH4, -NH3)
    • They can have an additive or even synergistic effect
    • Mycocheck LC-MS Mass Spectrometry is able to detect them, whereas many of the ELISAs or diffusion tests cannot

    “A quote from a satisfied pig farmer goes here. And some more explanation goes here and some more goes here.”

    John Smith
    Any Farm UK

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